Foreword by Nelson Mandela
About the authors
List of abbreviations
1. South Africa’s role in the Burundi peace process: why does it matter?
2. International intervention in Burundi: background considerations
- The legal basis for international interventions in conflict-torn countries
- The United Nations in Burundi: the limits to action
- The regional context of South African involvement in Burundi
3. War and the decline of human security in Burundi
- Geographic and economic fundamentals
- The socio-economic impact of war
- Violations of human rights
- The international response
4. The roots of the crisis
- From ethnicity to race?
- The Hutu revolution in Rwanda
- Counter-revolution in Burundi: political struggles after independence
- The general election of 1993
5. Democracy aborted: from coup to civil war
- The 'creeping coup' of 1993-94
6. Arusha I: background to the Arusha Peace Accord
- Early summits: Mwanza and the Arusha I, April - July 1996
- The road to Arusha II, August 1996 - June 1998
7. The Arusha II negotiations: from Nyerere to Mandela
- Who should be allowed to talk? The issue of inclusion
- Talking through committees
8. Madiba magic? Nelson Mandela’s role as mediator
- Weaving the magic: Mandela's approach to the negotiations
- The signing of the Arusha Agreement
- The signing of a ceasefire
- The Donors' Conference of December 2000
- Towards the transition
9. South Africa’s continuing role
- 'Our boys in Burundi'
- From protection to peacekeeping
- Building on Madiba: South Africa's continuing diplomacy
10. Burundi’s fragile transition: from Buyoya to Ndayizeye
- Regional attempts to stabilise the transition
- Ceasefire agreements between the government and three rebel groups
- The (limited) deployment of the African Union Peacekeeping Force
- The Presidential transition from Buyoya to Ndayizeye
11. Burundi’s transition under Ndayizeye: from impasse to a fragile deal
- Regional differences in the lead up to the September 2003 Summit
- Consultative talks at Sun City, 21 - 24 August 2003
- The Regional Summit of 15 - 16 September: the end of the road for Arusha?
- Sunshine after the rain? The making of a deal
- Faltering forward steps: the FNL talks to Ndayizeye
- The regional imbroglio: one step forward, two steps back?
12. The contradictory dynamics of democratisation and demilitarisation
- Cantonments and reform of the army
- Refugees, resettlement and the challenge of domestic order
- The conduct of prospective elections
- Political competition and electoral dynamics
- The prospects for peace
- Can Burundi's elites make a pact for peace?
- Towards a 'generosity moment'
- Towards reconciliation?
13. Burundian civil society and South African linkages
- Civil society in Burundi
- The exclusion of civil society from the peace process
- ACCORD'S engagement in Burundi
- The involvement of the Action Support Centre in Burundi
- Knocking on the door: calls from civil society for inclusion in the peace process
14. Sustaining the peace: lessons from South Africa?
- Overcoming race and ethnicity as tools of division
- A reconciliation with history
- Amnesty and justice: will a Truth Commission work for Burundi?
- Military dominance, minority rule and human rights
- Material inequality and the need for redress
- Achieving civic responsibility
15. Concluding observations: Mandela, South Africa and Burundi
- Mandela's contribution
- South Africa's involvement in Burundi
- Working for peace: the responsibility of Burundians
Postscript: ‘We cannot accept to die like hens’ – Tutsi fears and regional peace
- 'The last steps are the hardest': Tutsi parties baulk at election
- Crisis in the Great Lakes
Bibliography and other sources