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HSRC Press :: History, Humanities & Liberation :: The Congress Movement: Volume 1

The Congress Movement: Volume 1 

The Congress Movement: Volume 1

ICU, ANC, CP and Congress Alliance

Sylvia Neame

Format175mm x 245mm (Hard Cover)
ISBN 13978-0-7969-2486-5
Publish YearMarch 2015
RightsWorld Rights
DescriptionRelated ProductsEmail To A FriendProduct RatingCustomer Reviews

The Congress Movement: Volume 1 :: ICU, ANC, CP and Congress AllianceFree DownloadThe Congress Movement: Volume 1 :: ICU, ANC, CP and Congress Alliance

Author Sylvia Neame's study of the development of the national liberation movement in South Africa is in stark contrast to the frequent depictions of the history of the ANC by leading academics as fragmented, fractured and discontinuous. Not only does her analyses disprove the belief that the ANC's development has been episodic, several of the conclusions drawn point to its essential inner coherence.

Crucial to the development of the congress movement was the search for an alliance strategy that would ensure the ANC its central role. Particularly striking, and essentially new, is the depiction of the various alliance partners – including the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), the Communist Party and the South African Congress of Trade Unions –and their complicated interaction.

The research, based on extensive primary and secondary sources including some eighty interviews dating back to the early 1960s, uniquely combines narrative and analysis. The Congress Movement invites the reader to engage in the fascinating development of the national liberation movement in South Africa in its formative period and uncovers its outstanding continuities as well as the considerable range of its methods.

Volume 1 traces the unfolding of the congress movement from 1917 and looks at socialist and other forces that played an integral part in its formation. The 1918–20 upsurge, which included an African mineworkers' strike, played a key role in this development and laid the basis in the 1920s for a partnership between the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union and the African National Congress. VOLUME 1: 1917–April 1926
    A critical assessment of a wide range of views
    The CI's Black Republic resolution
    (a) The nature of the ANC
    (b) The nature of the ICU
    The ICU as a rural movement: Helen Bradford
    Erosion of the historical method, 1970s-80s: Neo-Marxists & "social historians"
    ANC in terms of its relationship to state power: Susan Booysen & Paul Rich
    The ANC, popular struggle & marginal groupings: Philip Bonner
    The discontinuous nature of ANC history: Tom Lodge
    A national-political history of the ANC: Peter Walshe
    ANC & labour. Continuity in Congress history: Peter Limb
    The origins of the ANC: André Odendaal

  2. THE WORKERS' UPSURGE, 1917-20:
    Birth of the Congress mass movement
    ISL & establishment of the IWA
    Development of the IWA prior to the upsurge
    Tensions within the IWA
    Wages movement of 1918
    The Moffat report
    Pass campaign of 1919
    1920 strike
    National Congress & formation of a national workers' organization, 1920
    Response of the ruling class
    (a) Low Grade Mines Commission
    (b) Establishment of the JJC
    (c) Founding of the TNMCA
    (d) Umteteli
    (e) Committee on the Native Pass Laws
    Mahabane comes to the fore

  3. KADALIE & SELBY MSIMANG, 1919-21:
    Congress, the ICWU & the ICU
    Kadalie's background
    Early days of the ICU
    Cape Town strike, 1919
    Selby Msimang's background
    SANNC conference, May 1920. African worker organization & Meshach Pelem
    Establishment of the ICWU at Bloemfontein, July 1920
    Problems of structure, arising from the conference
    ICU claims the role of a nationwide movement
    The Port Elizabeth events of 1920 – Masabalala & Msimang
    Kadalie & Masabalala break with Msimang at the time of the July 1921 ICWU conference
    Msimang drifts into the camp of the Joint Councils

  4. 1922 STRIKE & UPRISING:
    Was it anti-black?
    State of the parliamentary parties preceding the strike
    1922 strike
    Different streams in the strike
    Role of the Afrikaner nationalist politicians
    Role of the blacks in the strike
    The Cape, the ICU, and the 1922 strike

    Relations with the parliamentary parties
    ICU's October 1921 conference
    ICU's 1923 conference
    The contradictions continue. ICU & ICWU
    A new phase: Growing disillusionment with Smuts amongst black leaders
    Annual conference of Congress, May 1923
    ICU in the new phase
    CP's attitude towards the ICU & black nationalism into early 1924
    ICU's January 1924 conference

    White-Black Front against Smuts?
    Pact policies for the general election
    The Pact & the mining industry
    The communists & the 1924 election
    Cape black leaders attempt to establish a united front for the general election
    The All-African Convention, May 1924
    Mahabane & segregation – run-up to the election
    ANC annual conference, May 1924, & the general election
    Cape blacks in the election campaign
    Election results – how did the blacks vote?
    Contradictory nature of Hertzog's segregation policy in its early phase

  7. ICU & ANC; MID-1924 TO APRIL 1926:
    Non-cooperation & efforts to establish a united front
    The ICU comes to the Rand
    ICU-ANC relations in the setting of the ANC's 1925 conference
    Selope Thema's difficulties with Congress, mid-1923 to 1925
    ICU's 1925 conference
    ICU-ANC & the pass issue in 1925
    ICU-ANC – organizational-structural aspects
    ICU-ANC – the social aspect
    Receding of Garveyite influence in the ICU. Role of Thaele
    Kadalie's internationalist outlook
    CPSA-ICU, 1924-early 1926
    Growing disillusionment with Hertzog
    Mahabane calls for a national convention
    ANC in Special Convention, January 1926
    The Special Convention and the question of mass struggle
    Problem of the united front between the ICU and the ANC
    Postscript: Kadalie maintains the role of the ICU as a potential wing of the ANC

  8. STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF THE ICU, 1925-April 1926:
    Trade union, African-Coloured alliance or African nationalist movement?
    ICU, the stevedores & the rest of the dockworkers
    Growth of a town-based branch structure
    ICU offices, manned by provincial secretaries, tend to undermine the branch structure
    Opposition to Tyamzashe's bureaucratic methods
    The communists & the ICU's realignment on a trade union basis
    ICU's 1925 constitution
    A Coloured or African organization?
    Problems of the ICU's leading organs
    The La Guma inspection report
    National Council meeting & conference, April 1926, in relation to structural issues

Reference list



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