Based on an in-depth analysis of several contrasting agricultural regions, this book aims to assess South Africa's on-going agrarian reform and the country's agrarian dynamics.
The conclusion is without doubt: Twenty years after the first democratic elections, the country's land pattern remains almost unchanged, and primary agriculture and its broader value-chains are more concentrated than ever. Without fundamentally questioning the highly specialised, fossil energy and synthetic input dependent, oligopolistic entrepreneurial agricultural production model, which is presently structuring the sector and is guiding the reforms, a more equitable redistribution of resources and value-addition will by no means be possible.
This book examines and contributes to the structural questions that underpin the current stagnation of South Africa's agrarian reform. Presenting fresh approaches in analysing agrarian issues and tools to assess farming systems and agricultural development, this incisive study will be an important resource to policy makers, academics and those with an interest in agrarian reform.
What does it mean to reverse decades of racial injustice in access to land and productive resources, and to deal with a legacy of concentration and inequality? Can South Africa, which presents itself as the 'development state par excellence', succeed in the transition to more sustainable types of farming and to more localised food systems? The answers provided in this book will be of interest not only to all those interested in the South African experiment, but also to those who, in all regions, are questioning the mainstream agrifood regime and asking how it can be transformed.
Olivier De Schutter
Former UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food (2008–2014)
Co-Chair, International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems
Member of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Foreword by Nelson Mandela
About the authors
List of abbreviations
1. South Africas role in the Burundi peace process: why does it matter?
2. International intervention in Burundi: background considerations
- The legal basis for international interventions in conflict-torn countries
- The United Nations in Burundi: the limits to action
- The regional context of South African involvement in Burundi
3. War and the decline of human security in Burundi
- Geographic and economic fundamentals
- The socio-economic impact of war
- Violations of human rights
- The international response
4. The roots of the crisis
- From ethnicity to race?
- The Hutu revolution in Rwanda
- Counter-revolution in Burundi: political struggles after independence
- The general election of 1993
5. Democracy aborted: from coup to civil war
- The 'creeping coup' of 1993-94
6. Arusha I: background to the Arusha Peace Accord
- Early summits: Mwanza and the Arusha I, April - July 1996
- The road to Arusha II, August 1996 - June 1998
7. The Arusha II negotiations: from Nyerere to Mandela
- Who should be allowed to talk? The issue of inclusion
- Talking through committees
8. Madiba magic? Nelson Mandelas role as mediator
- Weaving the magic: Mandela's approach to the negotiations
- The signing of the Arusha Agreement
- The signing of a ceasefire
- The Donors' Conference of December 2000
- Towards the transition
9. South Africas continuing role
- 'Our boys in Burundi'
- From protection to peacekeeping
- Building on Madiba: South Africa's continuing diplomacy
10. Burundis fragile transition: from Buyoya to Ndayizeye
- Regional attempts to stabilise the transition
- Ceasefire agreements between the government and three rebel groups
- The (limited) deployment of the African Union Peacekeeping Force
- The Presidential transition from Buyoya to Ndayizeye
11. Burundis transition under Ndayizeye: from impasse to a fragile deal
- Regional differences in the lead up to the September 2003 Summit
- Consultative talks at Sun City, 21 - 24 August 2003
- The Regional Summit of 15 - 16 September: the end of the road for Arusha?
- Sunshine after the rain? The making of a deal
- Faltering forward steps: the FNL talks to Ndayizeye
- The regional imbroglio: one step forward, two steps back?
12. The contradictory dynamics of democratisation and demilitarisation
- Cantonments and reform of the army
- Refugees, resettlement and the challenge of domestic order
- The conduct of prospective elections
- Political competition and electoral dynamics
- The prospects for peace
- Can Burundi's elites make a pact for peace?
- Towards a 'generosity moment'
- Towards reconciliation?
13. Burundian civil society and South African linkages
- Civil society in Burundi
- The exclusion of civil society from the peace process
- ACCORD'S engagement in Burundi
- The involvement of the Action Support Centre in Burundi
- Knocking on the door: calls from civil society for inclusion in the peace process
14. Sustaining the peace: lessons from South Africa?
- Overcoming race and ethnicity as tools of division
- A reconciliation with history
- Amnesty and justice: will a Truth Commission work for Burundi?
- Military dominance, minority rule and human rights
- Material inequality and the need for redress
- Achieving civic responsibility
15. Concluding observations: Mandela, South Africa and Burundi
- Mandela's contribution
- South Africa's involvement in Burundi
- Working for peace: the responsibility of Burundians
Postscript: We cannot accept to die like hens Tutsi fears and regional peace
- 'The last steps are the hardest': Tutsi parties baulk at election
- Crisis in the Great Lakes
Bibliography and other sources